David Grabbe reiterates that the term "god of this age" (II Corinthians 4:4) would be a colossal anomaly if Paul used it to refer to Satan. Except of the 2nd Century heretic, Marcion of Sinope, apostolic writers and early Church writers understood that this verse referred to God and not to Satan. The Protestant reformer John Calvin misunderstood the Scripture, declaring that "nobody of sound judgment can think of any other than Satan in this verse." God does not share with any other being the power to blind, though Protestant scholars like to equivocate, substituting the word "deceive" for "blind." Satan encourages this playing fast and loose with the truth. The use of the lowercase "g" as in "their god is their belly" does not apply to II Corinthians 4:4 because the article "the" there is specific, referring to the God of this age (aion) Who has the power to blind. As Moses had to veil his luminous face, so, metaphorically, the God of this age mercifully blinds carnal individual because light hurts their eyes. As we see in the incident of the disciples on the road to Emmaus, Christ also has the prerogative to heal the blindness and take away the veil of ignorance. For those who are perishing, the Gospel is veiled; only the elect see the truth, but for the present, dimly.
David Grabbe, citing numerous scriptures that show God has the power to give sight to the blind, and conversely, to inflict spiritual blindness on others as a consequence of sin (Deuteronomy 28), argues that the Church's current understanding of II Corinthians 4:4 is incorrect. Translators use a lowercase "g" in "god of this age," yet it is the true God who does the blinding; He alone opens and closes eyes. Satan, on the other hand, deceives; he blurs the vision that God has made available. While Satan is opposed to truth, God embodies truth, yet does not reveal all truth all at once. There is no second witness of the Greek noun theos (rendered "god" in II Corinthians 4:4) denoting Satan. The New Testament writers refer to Satan as a ruler, but never as a god. Satan is certainly the prince of the power of the air and a major world ruler, but only in his wildest dreams is he a god capable of blinding.
Martin Collins, focusing upon various interpretations of who or what constitutes antichrists, examines several characteristics of this group of beings, including fostering deception and confusion, preventing fellowship, and creating intense spiritual conflict. Realizing that our real enemies are not human beings at all, but demonic principalities emanating from the spirit of darkness, we are mandated to put on the whole armor of God, embracing the truth. The mystery of evil and lawlessness has been extant from the beginning of the early church, recognized by Paul and John. Some teachers in the early church actually attained leadership and influence in the teaching of noxious false doctrine. Ultimately, the being or order emerging as the antichrist will be motivated directly by Satan. Historically, antichrist teachers have proclaimed that Jesus was only a man, or that He had a phantom body and never really experienced death. The syncretistic new religion of Chrislam is actually a prime example of antichrist doctrine. The false prophet and the great political leader in Revelation 13 and 17 will both be worshipped by people duped by Satan to believe a strong delusion. We need to be on guard for antichrist influences attempting to penetrate the greater church of God. We are admonished to test the spirits, realizing that heretical tares have been permitted to test our faith. The spirit of the antichrist is alive and well today, attempting to sabotage our spiritual welfare and steal our spiritual crown.