Richard Ritenbaugh, examining the current version of the Declaration of Geneva, as adopted in 2017 by the World Medical Association (WMA) General Assembly, compares the philosophy of this document with two of its predecessors: 1.) the Hippocratic Oath and 2.) the original Declaration of Geneva. The Hippocratic Oath is the ancient code of medical ethics in Greece, requiring the physician to uphold high ethical standards in the healing arts, promising to do no harm. Though dated, the Hippocratic Oath remains remarkable for its conservatism, proscribing abortion and euthanasia, while establishing a firm demarcation between right and wrong. The 1948 Declaration of Geneva was a reaction to the experiments performed by some Nazi and Japanese physicians in the 1930s and 40s. It stressed that doctors were duty-bound to protect the well-being and dignity of the patient and to maintain utmost respect for human life. In distinction to its predecessors, the 2017 Declaration of Geneva subtly alters the philosophy of the medical profession. Relativistic in approach, it rejects absolute standards of right and wrong, but rather permits the physician to yield to the whims of the patient, including their demands for abortion, sex change, and physician-assisted suicide. The 2017 Declaration conforms to the liberal's paradigm of the rejection of Christian values while furthering the deconstruction of traditional Western culture.
Richard Ritenbaugh, focusing on Paul's declaration that he would become all things to all men, suggests that Paul had the capability of seeing the truths of the Bible from several different cultural paradigms, namely an honor-shame continuum and a power-fear continuum, familiar to Hebrew and Middle-Eastern cultures, and an innocence-guilt continuum, familiar to those of us in the Western world, influenced by an admixture of Judeo-Christian ethic, Roman law, and Greek philosophy. Without a working knowledge of all three cultural paradigms, we have major blind-spots in interpreting and understanding the scriptures, culturally insulated like a fish out of water. Those of us in the Western world, steeped in the guilt-innocent paradigm, have a keen focus on right and wrong and tend to be highly individualistic, abhorring group-think and collectivist behavior. The language of this paradigm includes justice, pardon, works, wrath, mercy, right actions, doing what is right as measured against an abstract law. Those at home with the honor and shame paradigm define right and wrong in terms of group relationships. Whatever behavior brings shame on the group is to be shunned, as exampled by the shame the older brother felt as a result of the actions of "the prodigal son." In this parable, Christ enlightens us about the paradox that suffering shame for the sake of righteousness is in honor. A profoundly ingrained "pecking order" characterizes a power-fear culture, which is by definition fiercely hierarchical, with a strong man at the top. Each person below must either cower or put himself under the power of a protector. The language of Ephesians 1:15-23, combat language describing Satan as the adversary and Christ putting everything under His feet, resonates with individuals living in a power-fear culture. As we read the Bible, we find that God employs a blend of all three cultural paradigms, encouraging us to free ourselves from the bondage of cultural myopia and ethnocentrism in order to get more out the scriptures.
Richard T. Ritenbaugh: The latest abomination to come down the medical-ethics pike is the February 23, 2012, publication of "After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?" in the Journal of Medical Ethics. ...
Unless we are employed in a maritime occupation or have a particular interest in sailboats, we probably do not know a great deal about sailing. Using Paul's analogy in Ephesians 4:14, Gary Montgomery teaches a handy nautical maneuver, discussing how the steady, contrary winds of this world's way of life can be overcome by adjusting our sails to make spiritual headway.
In many respects, America has lost its moral and ethical foundation. Richard Ritenbaugh presents evidence from the fields of medicine, politics and religion that the slide into immorality is quickening.
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