Ronny Graham, reviewing the fifth and sixth days of Creation, when God created the sea-and land-animals, points out the symbolic traits many have come to associate with some animals: Snakes trigger fear; the sloth connotes laziness, and the ant represents industry. We are familiar with the clean and unclean distinction in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, where God commands His People to shun eating unclean meat or touching the carcasses of dead animals, this last being a wise health precaution as exampled by people contracting leprosy via contact with armadillos. Historically, in Middle Eastern cultures, the dog has a bad reputation. As people began to domesticate animals, they removed many disparaging stigmas, even to the point that, today, they promote some animals to the status of family members, sometimes according them equal legal footing with humans. Some have even dared to domesticate Pit Bulls, only to have loved ones mauled to death. All this points to the lack of balance exhibited by many in Western society.
Of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, the red horse may be the most easily interpreted. Richard Ritenbaugh shows, however, that while war is predominantly contemplated, the rider of the red horse is also responsible for the escalating violence on the homefront.
The first of the offerings of Leviticus is the burnt offering, a sacrifice that is completely consumed on the altar. John Ritenbaugh shows how this type teaches us about Christ's total dedication to God—and how we should emulate it.
America was not always internationalist in perspective. No, the United States was once quite removed from world affairs. Charles Whitaker shows from the terms of several presidents how the change from isolationism to globalism occurred. Also contains the inset article, "Great Men and God's Sovereignty."
John Ritenbaugh focuses upon the book of Mark, emphasizing the symbolism of the ox, whose enduring servitude and sacrifice produces a great deal in the way of growth. Downplaying or understating kingly authority or lordship (the hallmark of Matthew) Mark concentrates on the uncomplaining and sacrificing traits of a servant. Jesus sets a pattern for us by serving without thought of authority, power, position, status, fame, or gain, but as a patient, enduring, faithful servant, practicing good will and providing a role model of pure religion (James 1:27) for us to emulate.
John Ritenbaugh explains that the four-layered biography of Christ known as the Gospels graphically illustrates the typology of Revelation 4:7 depicting a lion, ox, man, and eagle. Matthew emphasizes the heroic majestic qualities of a lion; Mark emphasizes the faithful and hard-working qualities of an ox; Luke emphasizes the compassionate and empathetic qualities of a man, and John focuses upon the ascendant qualities of an eagle, depicting Christ's divinity. As these four biographies unfold, we get a composite picture or image of what we are to be transformed into.
John Ritenbaugh warns us that the Bible paradoxically is both simple and profound, understandable only to those who have been called, love the truth, and are given to careful scrutiny, enabling the searcher to describe every nuance of what it is they desire. The obsessiveness of both a lover and a sports-trivia enthusiast characterize the level of effort involved. The life sustaining manna of the Bible, while abundant and plentiful, is hidden'layered in types, symbols, and allegories. In the typology of the four Edenic rivers flowing from one source (Genesis 2:10) and the four living creatures (Revelation 4:6-8: lion, calf, man, and eagle) lies the foundation for understanding the gospels as four distinct representations of the same Life.
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