David C. Grabbe: The specific instruction in Deuteronomy 16:16 is that, during the three holy day seasons of the year, we should not appear before God "in vain" or "with futility. ...
John Ritenbaugh, reflecting upon the Middle East connotations casting disdain upon dogs, points out that the grounds of comparison may be their inclination to be sneaky, groveling scavengers feeding on the refuse of humanity, including human flesh. God's Word describes the ritual harlot and the sodomite as disgusting, vile dogs on the lowest echelon of humanity. The wages of a harlot or sodomite would defile any offering. God expects offering to Him to be undefiled, meeting His standards. An example is the Passover lamb, which was to be without blemish. The Israelites were not allowed to use livestock or produce from Gentiles or foreigners as offerings because they were contaminated. The very land metaphorically vomited them out. Consequently, the offerings we produce should emanate from the work of our own hands and not from any ill-gotten gains. When we give an offering, it should come from pure unsullied motives.
John Ritenbaugh, drawing comparisons between the vast offerings given collectively by the nation of Israel for the building of the temple, equaling 1 billion, 400 thousand dollars in today's wealth, and King David's personal contribution, in excess of 1 billion, 600 thousand dollars, avers that both were dwarfed into significance when compared to the widow described in Luke 21:1-4, who gave a paltry 2 mites—that's only a quarter of one cent. She gave considerably more because she sacrificed all she had, while the richer contributors gave from their excess. God, who needs nothing from any of us, nevertheless is moved when (1) we carefully and thoughtfully consider our offering, (2) we give it with a certain measure of sacrifice, (3) we give it in faith, and (4) we give it ungrudgingly, realizing that God is no respecter of persons, but measures each person's attitude and intent individually.
John Ritenbaugh affirms that the sacrificial system of Leviticus typifies spiritual sacrifices which we perform under the New Covenant. Although the slaying of an animal may seem archaic, the spiritual insight is significant. Abel's offering of an animal was acceptable, whereas Cain's offering of the produce of the land was not. With the sacrifice of an animal, we sacrifice a being with which we have established a close relationship. The cutting of the animal's throat typifies the degree of self-sacrifice demanded of us. Our submission to God must take precedence over love for family or anyone or anything else. The Old Testament sacrifices focused more on total commitment and sacrifice rather than on dying.
Members of God's church are required to give offerings during God's holy days (Deuteronomy 16:16), and we are told to give as we are able (verse 17). Both we and God will get more out of our offerings, especially spiritually, when we plan our giving.
We tend to forget how different holy days and their offerings were under the Old Covenant as compared to the New. However, the important part of giving offerings remains the same!
John Ritenbaugh reiterates that the entire Old Testament was written with the New Testament church in mind. Certain temporary ceremonial sacrifices, washings, and rituals were set aside when the spiritual reality—such as Christ's sacrifice replacing animal sacrifices and God's Holy Spirit and His Word replacing physical washings (Hebrews 9:18; Ephesians 5:26)—added a spiritual dimension. All biblical law, including the ceremonies, comes from God. Paul never taught any Jew to forsake the Law of Moses, the constitution and civil code, but he did rail against Pharisaical additions for the expressed purpose of attaining justification. Even though a change occurred in the administration of existing law, no laws were done away. Instead, they are written in the hearts of the converted (Hebrews 8:10; 10:16).
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