God's Sovereignty, Ecclesiastes, and God's Will

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God knows the end from the beginning, but He does not give us all the details at once, except as they are necessary for us for His purpose to be worked out.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Two

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

That God is sovereign means that He IS God, the absolute governor of all things. This has profound implications for us: It means He chooses goodness or severity.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part One)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Most converted Christians realize that God is sovereign. But sometimes the Bible reveals something about God that makes us uncomfortable. Can we accept it?


God's Sovereignty and the Church's Condition (Part One)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

How involved in man's affairs is God? Is He merely reactive, or does He actively participate—even cause events and circumstances, particularly in the church?


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part One)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

We are mandated to live by faith, being given trials of faith in order to chisel our character. We must totally and unreservedly accept God's sovereignty.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Three

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Consider two end-time, dominant forces: the Beast power of Revelation 13 and God. To whom will we yield to in the coming years?


Human Will and God's Sovereignty (Part Three)

Commentary by John W. Ritenbaugh

God-designed personalities, having His character, will make up God's family, not self-made personalities created by human will. We must yield as He creates.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Those who have made a covenant with God can be corrupted unless they make a concerted effort to know God, realizing He has the right to do as He pleases.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Two)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Nothing and no one can thwart God's purposes. We need to develop the faith to yield and conform to His will as clay in the potter's hands.


God's Sovereignty and the Church's Condition (Part Two)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God's hand was definitely involved in the scattering of the church. We should respond by growing and preparing ourselves for His Kingdom.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Five

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Is God sovereign over angels? What about mankind's choices? God's sovereignty is absolute as He directs events toward the culmination of His plan.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Seven)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

In the example of a child summoned by a parent to clean up his room, the child's dawdling and complaining are not predestined nor are they part of God's will.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Six)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God has consistently moved His creation toward its ultimate purpose, setting the bounds of nations, motivating rulers to pursue a certain course of action.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Twelve)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Those who emphasize one trait of God, or one doctrine, at the expense of the others run the risk of distorting the truth, creating a grotesque caricature.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Seven

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

One aspect of sovereignty that causes some confusion is predestination. God's sovereignty does not remove a person's free moral agency — we must still choose.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Six

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

The overriding issue of life is to whom we will give ourselves in obedience. Will it be ourselves, society, business, Satan or God?


The Sovereignty of God: Part Four

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God not only rules in heaven, but He is also sovereign on earth! He is not an absentee landlord, but One who is actively involved in administering His creation.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Eight)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

The purpose of prayer is not to overcome God's reluctance, but to help in yielding to His will. 'Prayer changes things' is only true if it conforms to God's will.


The Sovereignty of God (Part One)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

We are assured that even though inexplicable things happen in our lives, God is still sovereign. We must develop childlike faith to trust in Him for solutions.


The Sovereignty of God and Human Responsibility: Part Eleven

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God's sovereignty and free moral agency set up a seeming paradox. Just how much choice and freedom do we have under God's sovereign rule?


The Sovereignty of God: Introduction

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God's sovereignty is one of the most important issues a Christian must consider. Have we acknowledged that He has total authority over us in particular?


The Sovereignty of God (Part Eleven)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Understanding God's sovereignty as a basic doctrine provides a link between knowledge and practice, as well as providing motivation to yield to God's purpose.


Human Will and God's Sovereignty (Part Two)

Commentary by John W. Ritenbaugh

Human will is not sovereign in the body, but is just another servant, functioning according to the information it receives. We choose according to desires.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Two)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Fully accepting God's sovereignty should drive us to seek Him so that we can come to know Him as completely as possible, which is vital to our salvation.


Living By Faith and God's Sovereignty

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Some may doubt that God is in control, but God's sovereignty over His creation is complete. The course of world events are moving according to His will.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Eight

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

If God is manipulating everything in His sovereignty, why pray? What does prayer teach us? Here is why God commands us to come before Him in prayer.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Two)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Faith in God and in the motivating power in God's Word have to be the driving force in everything we do each day.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Five)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

A converted person, accepting God's specific care with His children, realizes that both prosperity and deprivation are tools in the Creator's workshop.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Four)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

We are not individually sovereign, but we are taught to give ourselves over completely to God's sovereignty. If we do, we will reap unfathomable blessings.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Eternal life is to live a quality life as God lives, having developed a close relationship with God, living by faith and accepting His sovereignty over all.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty, Part Three: The Fruits

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Here are four qualities of character that our full acceptance of God's sovereignty will build and that will prepare us for whatever work God may choose for us.


The Sovereignty of God: Part Nine

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God's sovereignty seems to imply that prayer is pointless. Yet the function of prayer is not to change God's mind, but ours!


The Sovereignty of God (Part Ten)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Like Job, we must surrender to God's will and purpose for our lives, realizing that both pleasant and horrendous times work for our spiritual development.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Nine)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Prayer is not a dictating to a reluctant God, but a demonstration of our attitude of dependence and need. It is a means to get into harmony with God's will.


The Sovereignty of God (Part Four)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God not only upholds, but also guides and propels His creation, periodically overruling man's mismanagement with floods, fires, winds, and earthquakes.


Living by Faith: God's Sovereignty

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Since God is sovereign over His creation, we need to be careful about reviling someone in authority, even someone who may have been appointed to bring evil.


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Six, Conclusion)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, maintaining that our responsibility is to yield to God's sovereignty, nevertheless suggests that God has, by giving us free will, enabled us to freely sin, but holds us responsible for governing ourselves. The word govern, derived from the Latin noun gubern?tor, indicates a regulating, as in steering a ship with …


Fully Accepting God's Sovereignty (Part Four)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Government may be the most important subject in the Bible because it touches on how Christians are to govern themselves under the sovereignty of God.


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Four)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

In this message on the subject of planning and God's sovereignty, John Ritenbaugh stresses that we are obliged to respond to God because He has interfered in our lives, causing us to repent, giving us His Holy Spirit, and limiting our options. We should plan our lives to be in sync with God's planning and purposes for our lives. …


Power Belongs to God (Part One)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Where does real power reside? All power has its source in God—and not just the kind of power we typically think of.


God's Creation and Our Works

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Like Joseph, we need to realize that God—not ourselves—is the Creator, engineering events that form us into what He wants us to become.


The Providence of God (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

We have to exercise faith, realizing the timing will be right for us, enabling us to accept His provisions and decisions for us without fear or anxiety.


Psalms: Book Four (Part Four): God as Creator

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

The creation offers compelling testimony to the intricacies which preclude even the possibility of evolution. Evolution is a futile attempt to get rid of God.


An Abuse of Sovereignty

CGG Weekly by David C. Grabbe

Most professing Christians agree that God is sovereign, but there is a wide range of beliefs with regard to just how involved God is in their lives.


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Two)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh emphasizes how intimately God is involved with the intimate details of our life, including our conception and birth, supplying spiritual gifts or abilities to carry out His work. David reflects that God knows us searchingly, even our secret thoughts and desires before we are even aware of them (Psalm 139:2). …


God Has the Last Word

Commentary by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, referring to Jerusalem as Sodom and Egypt because of their perverse conduct, suggests that those of us living in modern Israel are living in spiritual Sodom and will be sorely tested in these last devastating times. We have to realize that in these terrible times, God has the last word. We need to realize the …


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh explores several nuances of the term grace, describing a generous, thoughtful action of God, accompanied by love, which accomplishes His will, equipping us with everything we will need to be transformed into the Bride. Even though we, like Jeremiah, may feel timid and underpowered, God is always out in front, …


Sovereignty and Choice

Sermonette by David C. Grabbe

David Grabbe, unraveling several apparently contradictory scriptures, exposes a fundamental flaw in western thinking—namely the binary (that is, either-or) thinking that leads us to construct false dilemmas. Perhaps the best example of this is the one delineated by Protestant theologians who conceptualize law and grace at …


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part One)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh assures us that God is involved in the minute details of every converted person's life just as much as He is in the major historical world events. As a new creation of God (II Corinthians 5:17) we receive continuous, meticulous, detailed attention through the creative activity of His grace which never stops. God, …


Boundaries, Incursions, Migrations, and God (Part Two)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Even though the way God exercises His sovereignty is inscrutable to us , calling the foolish to confound the wise, all He does fits perfectly into His plan.


Power Belongs to God (Part 1)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Paul knew that only through strengthening his relationship with God was he able to both abound and be abased. When we are in trouble, we need to contact God first.


The Great Wave and God

CGG Weekly by John W. Ritenbaugh

Is it not galling, indeed angering, that renowned people from the world of Christianity cannot give a forthright and true answer straight from God's Book?


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Five)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

In terms of salvation, works cannot save, but good works are the fruit of God's involvement. Grace frees one; works prove that one has been freed.


How God Deals With Conscience (Part Five)

Sermon by Martin G. Collins

Martin Collins, reiterating that Joseph is a type of Jesus Christ, moves to the climactic point of the narrative in Genesis 45, in which Joseph reveals himself to his brothers. Joseph knew and recognized his brothers before they knew him. God knows our guiltiest secret sins which we think we have effectively hid. All things are …


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Six)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh asserts that after justification, for grace to be made dominant, its influence must extend beyond justification, into the sanctification stage where the believer must yield himself to righteousness, keeping God's commandments making himself a slave of righteousness. God's grace is manifested by His giving gifts, …


Passover of the Most High God

'Ready Answer' by David C. Grabbe

Among God's many titles is one that proclaims His supremacy over all others: 'Most High God' or 'God Most High.' It provides confidence in God's governance.


Truth and God's Governance (Part Three)

CGG Weekly by David C. Grabbe

God puts people where He wants them and gives them the responsibilities that He desires them to fulfill. They can be either faithful or unfaithful leaders.


Power Belongs to God (Part Two)

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Human beings, even those who have been called, have an innate fear that God will not always provide. This fear originates in doubt about God's power.


Power Belongs to God (Part 2)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

We may be going through a period of hopelessness, but must believe that all things work together for those who believe and are called for His purpose.


Sovereignty and 'Once Saved Always Saved'

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Those who believe in the "once saved always saved" doctrine fail to see that God has a more extensive and creative plan for mankind than merely saving him.


God's Calling and Election

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

We have been given something far more valuable than the lottery, namely our calling. We are obligated not to squander this valuable opportunity.


Boundaries, Incursions, Migrations, and God (Part One)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, referring to Edward Erler's article in Imprimis titled, "Does Diversity Really Unite Us?" suggests that the globalist enemies of language, borders, and culture have made themselves enemies of the will of God, who set up boundaries not only for Israel, but for all the children of Adam. Globalist …


Do You See God in Deuteronomy?

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God displaced the Amorites because they had defiled the land; not one righteous person existed. Israel was warned not to defile themselves with demonism.


Sovereignty and Its Fruit: Part Ten

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Once we accept God's sovereignty, it begins to produce certain virtues in us. John Ritenbaugh explains four of these byproducts of total submission to God.


Sovereignty and Submission

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh warns that being reared in a democratic nation sometimes complicates our relationship with God. The type of liberty we have in this form of government is different from our liberty granted by God, a condition of our slavery to righteousness. God's government is actually a sovereign, benevolent dictatorship. …


The Providence of God (Part One)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, defining providence as the protective care of God, suggests that the providence of God also touches on the pains and sufferings of persecution. To the elect whom God foreknew, all things- pleasant or unpleasant- happen for ultimate good (Romans 8:28). Tragic things, calamities, trials, anxiety, evil, and curses …


How Big Is God?

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh cautions us not to have a one-dimensional perspective of God, pointing to the multi-faceted aspects of His personality and His vast works. Our puny minds can only grasp a tiny sliver of what God really is. Far less than a toddler to an adult is our understanding compared to God's. As a meticulous micro-manager …


Sovereignty, Election, and Grace (Part Seven)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh asserts that when God created Adam, He prepared only a foundation for mankind's eventual spiritual creation undertaken by the Second Adam. Spiritual creation requires much intense pressure and continual testing to determine character. Jesus went through this process first to provide us an example. We are to be …


Seeking God in the Mundane

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Pentecostalism, with its sensationalism, is dangerous to a true believer. God is more interested in quietness and meekness than in bombastic displays of power.


Futility, Sovereignty, and Faith

CGG Weekly by Levi W. Graham

The Law of Entropy teaches that matter is moving toward disorder. But when we remember God's sovereignty, we can conclude that there is a purpose in this futility.


Preempting God

Sermonette by Joseph B. Baity

The purpose of activism is to take matters into one's own hands, often resulting in violence. Moses' slaying of the Egyptian may have been social activism.


Truth and God's Governance (Part Two)

CGG Weekly by David C. Grabbe

The best human leaders are those who recognize that they are not the ones running things. Exceptional leaders submit to the reality of God's sovereignty.


Truth and God's Governance (Part One)

CGG Weekly by David C. Grabbe

Jesus as not a typical revolutionary, seeking to overthrow a human regime, yet the truth He spoke was so radical that He was put to death cruelly for it.


Wisdom: Only Through The Grace of God

Sermon by Mark Schindler

Mark Schindler, commenting upon some changes in the household, one of which involved the acquiring of a new dog, a dog that turned out to be a jumper, describes the extensive attempts at retrieving the fugitive animal. Later, preparations were made again as a new granddaughter, Sophia Grace, arrived on the scene. The name …


Are You Sure You Believe in God? (Part Two)

Sermon by Martin G. Collins

Belief in God involves more than believing He exists, but in faithfully obeying what He asks us to do. Genuine faith gives us access to genuine power.


The Glory of God (Part 4): Glorifying God

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh insists that a raw display of emotion and exuberance does not necessarily glorify God. What we do to glorify God will reflect just how highly we esteem Him. Because God has redeemed us (purchasing us with an awesome price), we must become living sacrifices, no longer joined with the world—a condition …


Is God to Blame?

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

The 9/11 bombings were tragic and terrible. Some have since asked, 'Was God involved? Is He to blame?' These tough questions have challenging answers.


Examining God's Judgments

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

The fall holy days picture various judgments by God, bringing about liberty, reconciliation, regathering, and restoration.


Cyrus: God's Anointed

'Prophecy Watch' by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

When we think of messiah, we think of Jesus Christ. Yet the Bible has a much broader definition. The pagan emperor Cyrus the Great was also a messiah!


Genesis 1 and Free-Moral Agency

CGG Weekly by John W. Ritenbaugh

What does Scripture say about free-moral agency? Are we human puppets on a string, manipulated from above? How does free will relate to God's sovereignty?


Our Way Forward

CGG Weekly by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

As God's instruction manual, the Bible contains the answers and guidance we need in times of trouble. Scripture reflects His mind more than any other resource.


No Failsafe Needed

Sermon by Mark Schindler

Mark Schindler, establishing some foundational principles that God does not create chaos and confusion, but has re-established order after Satan's rebellion, points out the danger and folly of presumptuously choosing standards of right and wrong rather than trusting God's judgment. The essential dualities of the Tree of Life and …


Ecclesiastes and Christian Living (Part Three): Time

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

Solomon reveals that God is solidly in control of time. Knowing that God is sovereign over time should fill us with faith in God's workmanship.


Ecclesiastes and Christian Living (Part Four): Other Gifts

'Personal' from John W. Ritenbaugh

God has given His people tremendous gifts that, if used, will build their faith and draw them closer to Him. He wants us to succeed because we matter.


Ecclesiastes Resumed (Part Five)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh reiterates that a life lived apart from God, under the sun, amounts to vanity and a fist full of wind. As we become aware of God's involvement in our lives, we begin to stand in awe of God, developing an appreciation for the proper investment of our time. 780 references to time recur through Scripture. Thousands …


Mightier Than the Sword (Part Four)

Commentary by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, citing a statement made by FDR to his son-in-law that nothing happens in Washington that isn't planned, assures us that NOTHING escapes God's observation and that God's ultimate sovereignty guarantees that nothing occurs in history that hasn't been under God's control. What is now, and what has always happened …


Psalms: Book Two (Part Four)

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh, focuses again on Book Two, aligned with Exodus, Ruth, and Pentecost, emphasizing the wave loaves made of beaten down flour with leavening and baked with intense heat—loaves which symbolize us and our preparation for the Kingdom of God. Eight of the psalms of Book Two were not written by David, but by …


The Handwriting Is On the Wall (Part One) (2007)

Feast of Tabernacles Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

In this keynote address of the 2007 Feast of Tabernacles, John Ritenbaugh, focusing on Abraham's pattern of life, answers the question, 'Why is the Church of the Great God doing what it is doing at this time?' Abraham and Sarah's life of faith is the pattern that God's called-out ones are obligated to follow. Interestingly, …


Creator, Sustainer, Head (Part One)

CGG Weekly by David C. Grabbe

The book of Hebrews resonates for the church of God at this time due to the strong parallels between our circumstances and those of the first century church.


Ecclesiastes and the Feast of Tabernacles (Part 2)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God emphasizes Ecclesiastes during the Feast of Tabernacles to show the result of doing whatever our human heart leads us to do. The physical cannot satisfy.


Psalms: Book One (Part Two)

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Because Jesus is God's Son, we can avoid the rod of His anger by paying respect with worshipful awe. We must know both His instruction and Him personally.


Ecclesiastes Resumed (Part Twenty-One)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, continuing his exposition on Ecclesiastes, focuses on three interrelated terms: paradox (something contrary to expectation), conundrum (a riddle), and wisdom (skill in arts, such as Bezalel and Oholiab who were gifted in a specific skill—or spiritual insight). We are called into the body of Christ gifted …


Resistance (Part Two): Solutions

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh continues his exposé of artistic and spiritual resistance, an analogy derived from Stephen Pressfield's The War of Art, a manual designed to overcome artistic resistance and many forms of self-sabotage. The core of self-sabotage is our carnal human nature, which absolutely abhors any change which leads to …


Ecclesiastes Resumed (Part Thirty)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, reiterating that wisdom is not the answer to all of life's problems, indicates that it is still a valuable virtue, transforming us for good and a sense of well-being. In the matter of deference to civil authority, we must remember that, as ambassadors and sojourners in a foreign land, we must give governing …


Where Does Righteousness Come From?

Sermonette by David C. Grabbe

Job was righteous because of the work of God, forming his righteousness out of nothing, guiding events and providing an environment in which character was formed.


Why Are You Here?

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God, following a pattern, routinely calls the lowly and weak to guard against pride. God will transform the weak of this world through His Holy Spirit.


Submitting (Part 1)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Liberty without guidelines will turn into chaos. We will be free only if we submit to the truth. All authority, even incompetent authority, derives from God.


Esther (Part Five)

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

Richard Ritenbaugh, observing that the civil Festival of Purim in the Jewish community, commemorating the deliverance of the Jews from virulent anti-Semitism in ancient Persia, explains that this festival is celebrated with a notable spirit of merriment because it depicts a miraculous rescue from a hopelessly impossible …


His Eye Is on the Sparrow (Part Five)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh somewhat modifies his amazement at individuals who made gigantic sacrifices in the fledgling days of the Radio Church of God, concluding that it is in fact God who expends the lion's share of the energy, putting us all through flip flops in our sanctification process. Our yielding to God's will is a relatively …


His Eye Is on the Sparrow (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

John Ritenbaugh, continuing his comparison of the timid, insignificant sparrow with the virtually unnoticed, timid Church, reiterates that God has complete oversight over the awesome plan of creating offspring in His image. Consequently, we should not fear Satan, his demons, or the world, but we should fear and respect the One …


Hebrews (Part Fourteen): Chapter 2, A Mind Bending Purpose (Part Three)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

Without a meaningful relationship with Christ, God's people cannot possibly bear fruit. Our responsibility is to yield to God's creative work in our lives.


The Holy Spirit and the Trinity (Part Seven)

Sermon by John W. Ritenbaugh

God personally handpicks individuals with whom He desires to form a reciprocal relationship. This relationship must be dressed, kept, tended, and maintained.


Promised: Protection and Healing

Sermon by Richard T. Ritenbaugh

In this message on God's promises of protection and healing, Richard Ritenbaugh identifies several conditions for receiving them, including God's sovereignty, God's purpose, and one's level of growth. A way to see things "God's way" involves replacing our carnal, egocentric viewpoint with outgoing concern. We must …